Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian. He had a reputation for his highly non-orthodox theories of ethnogenesis . Москва: Наука. The Hsiung-nu in China (); Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth (); Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe (). This chapter discusses Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis. Generally speaking, ethnogenesis proceeded in the following manner. At certain historical moments. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth has 98 ratings and 9 reviews.

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The wealth of this country was mainly based on a favorable geographical position. And one can add to that the separatist tendencies of the different, separate regions approximation E discoverable by paleoethnography, and so on. What seems monstrous to a Viosphere is natural for a Mongol, and vice versa.

Tylor, Sir James Frazer, and L. The famous Orientalist Chokan Valikhanov said of himself that he considered himself equally Russian and Kazakh. One can also find more grounds for doubt, but that is not the point. And now the autumn wind drifts the bottom sediments and blows salty dust onto the friable land of fields.

The eye-piece scans the Near East – and Iran is nowhere to be seen! We must therefore examine how these processes come about and why they yield different results. From the s he worked in the Geography Institute, where he would defend another doctoral thesis, this time in geography.

One can therefore say that the problem of ethnogenesis lies on the boundary of historical science where its social aspects pass smoothly into the natural ones. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. The cultural types themselves will be blurred, as for the earthly historian who is concerned with early antiquity.

Jews lived in Salonika as an endogamous group more than years after their expulsion from Spain, but according to the data of they were more like Arabs than their neighbors the Greeks.

Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere

In order to affect the forming or the break-up of an ethnos, social development operates through history, both political and cultural. White Sea Russians, Petersburg workers, Transvolga Old Believers, Siberian gold prospectors, peasants of the forest provinces and peasants of the steppes, the Don and Ural Cossacks were outwardly quite unlike one another, but that did not disrupt the folk unity, while the closeness of the everyday life of the Greben Cossacks and the Chechens did not unite them.


The world had really been transformed in years, but not quite as the interpreter in the spacecraft had suggested. The old ideology of the settled dwellers of this country was Buddhism in the Hinayana form ‘Lesser Way’ or ‘Lesser Vehicle’, i. From high up it seems that, since people were killing each other in the name of slogans, the slogans should be cleared away and all would live in peace. But what of the author?

Organisms including human ones. They may only ethnogfnesis be preserved or, being unconservated, are broken down and destroyed. Even the outline of the Caspian Sea was different. So I am introducing the term ‘ethnosphere’ which, like other geographical phenomena, must have its own patterns of development, different from the biological and the social.

But that is the exception; for the most part the archaeologist has to be ethnogensis with shards got from the dust of scorching steppes, fragments of bones in rifled graves, and remains of walls, the height in one imprint of a brick. The state, the Merovingian dynasty, morals, customs, the economy, military might, and spiritual culture.

It is quite difficult to trace the rise and decline of the economy of ancient periods, again because of the incompleteness of the information obtained from primary sources. The outlook there was very gloomy. Kozlov described the valley of the Sogo Nor as a freshwater oasis in the desert surrounding it, but noted at the same time that it could not feed a large population.

Dilettantism can also be useful, or rather fruitful. Common terms and phrases already ancient anthroposphere antiquity Arabs arise arose Asia became become biocoenosis biological biosphere Byzantine Byzantium Caliphate called Celts Central Asia biospherr A.

They ran another through with a spear because biosphers had drawn a watch from his pocket and looked at the sun. Nikolai rated it did not like it Jul 08, It was no more. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.

Lev Gumilev. “Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere”. Chapter 1

But these cities were not defended by the descendants of Italian legionaries, while these same Germans only did so for pay. Such mutual adaptation is only an when a rising ethnos is full of strength and is seeking to apply it.

In this very continental country there is a very deep depression, the bottom of which lies meters below sea level, and in this depression there is an ancient cultural center, the Turfan oasis. Only among the Confucian scholars can one note the distress bisphere the faces, because they foresee the future calamities arising as a rule with the universal venality and decline of education, and also, perhaps, among the Taoists whose teaching is banned on pain of death.


Those species that are incapable of adapting must migrate to another geographical terrain or perish. Then there is 4 the interpretation of facts on the plane of the problem posed and 5 the posing of new problems ethnogehesis at the juncture of sciences.

There was a certain confusion in that fraught with ethnogenesks consequences.

It goes without saying that achieving the ‘path of perfection’ is the affair of the few. But that, too, is a mirage.

Compare seventeenth century Moscow with its boyar hats and beards, when women spun behind mica windows, or eighteenth-century Moscow when magnates in wigs and camisoles took their wives to balls, and nineteenth-century Moscow when bearded nihilist students educated young ladies bkosphere all estates; and add the decedents of the early twentieth century.

But the question of ethnic national groups, which I shall call ethnoi biospheee as to avoid terminological confusion, is full of absurdities and is extremely confused. The geographical landscape necessarily affects the organism, compelling all individuals to vary in a certain direction insofar as the organization of the species permits. That would also have been the conclusion of the space observer. The things found in the ground, or old burials, do not tend to mislead researchers or inspire them to distort the facts.

I have posed the question of the extent of our knowledge, or rather ignorance of the subject this study is ethnoegnesis to. Vandals hold the coastal part of the province of Africa, while ethjogenesis the interior savage Moors spread terror. There is no exact method of determining absolute dating in geography. The delta of the Volga then stretched almost to the Buzachi Peninsula, and an immense tract of fertile land was not inundated.