La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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This theoretical source has been adopted by way of the characterization of a crisis as an event in which the occurrence of a harmful event generates the experiencing of a highly-intense negative emotional state, characterized in a generic way as emotional pain. The interactive theory about stress and coping proposed by Lazarus and Folkman bwhich analyzes stress as a process of interaction between external or internal threatening events and a person’s cognitive appraisal regarding the inherent harm to the event and regarding her own ability to deal with the threat.

The passing of time involves modifications in these appraisals, both by way of its effect on memory and because of the effect of reappraisals coming from the adaptive result of the coping the person has attempted. Instrumental coping follows challenge appraisals leading the person to experience a CS as a challenge, and is required particularly to prevent objective threats of the appearance of new harms “regardless of how bad a situation is, it can get worse”to prevent the generalization of the crisis to new vital zones different from the original one, and to procure the objective material conditions required to access new levels of post-crisis re-adaptation.

The exercise of control. Both types are learned throughout the course of life, and in their formation the personal experience in the particular socio-cultural environment where the person has grown up plays a very important role. By the same token, it makes more sense to argue that the recurrence of the emotional experience of fear favors the filtering through a signification of harm that leads the person to hopelessness and depression than to propose that the fear stage is followed by the depression stage in the adaptive cycle.

That is, reinforcement expectations refer, in motivational terms, to wanted consequences goals that approximate the final expected outcomebut not to the consummatory outcomes that are expected superordinate goals.

Some factors, both personal and situational, influence the determination of the development of primary and secondary appraisal, and also of reappraisal; entreivsta the personal factors, Lazarus and Folkman b have proposed commitment and beliefs; among situational factors, novelty, predictability, and event incertitude, as well as temporal factors, are particularly important. The world, in this case the CSis what a person perceives about it, and to what extent it affects her.

Crisis intervention, even entreivsta brief, is broader and more lasting, encompassing all the time and factors inherent to the crisis Slaikeu,whereas emergency intervention is more restricted in time and covers only some selective aspects of the crisis, such as the consequences of acute biological harm, or the behavioral consequences expressed in acts of aggression to others or self-aggression, as in suicide.

The essential task of emotional coping is to procure relief from emotional pain and to prevent this pain from turning into suffering.

These are very diverse beliefs, some very general, which can encompass all aspects of a person’s life, and others more specific and restricted to those aspects related to the CS. Entrevista motivacional [Motivational interviewing]. In any CS the probability that the available information will generate incertitude in the person increases; in such a case, the role of situational ambiguity is mediated by subjective interpretations, with which the function of personal beliefs becomes more significant in the determination of the course that coping will take.


Nevertheless, their integration as an explanatory model of crises is llzarraga new and requires the development lizaraga empirical studies verifying it; the novelty of the model is of a great interest regarding the addressing of a crisis in a normal stage of its development, when it has not yet assumed pathological manifestations and as a field of application of BMI.

These two types of appraisal constitute, according to Lazarus and Folkman, the essence of secondary appraisal in stress situations. Both of these processes are necessary in the course of coping with a CS as they lead to necessary results for the attainment of personal adaptation in the post-crisis.

An integrated expectancy model. Other general beliefs, not referring to psychological aspects but rather to ideological aspects, motivacionl existential beliefs, such as religious beliefs; in a CSthese existential beliefs acquire a very clear function of emotional and motivational determination, by suggesting explanatory alternatives about the meaning of the experienced event, and about the meaning a person can attribute to coping with it e.

At an extreme at which emotional pain absence of relief and lack of clarity regarding the possibilities motivaciona, cope with harm are predominant, a CS can lead the person along a path of extreme autonomic arousal where decisions can deliberately assume a path of self-destruction, further leading in both enrevista to an emergency situation within the CSor in a more general way, the person’s situation can negatively evolve assuming characteristics proper of an anxiety disorder or an affective disorder Barlow, Motivacionl, objective harm and aversion inherent to the set of CS triggering stimuli act in the motivavional of a punishment, which facilitates the person’s eventually interpreting them as such, and her engaging in speculations about which behaviors her own and those lizargaga others have produced the supposed punishment, with the subsequent emotional consequences of self-blaming or blaming others.

These authors characterize such factors in the following terms: That complex state of emotional experience during a CS makes it adopt a syndrome-like nature rather than one of pure expression of an isolated emotion. Emotional Experience during the Crisis In this section, we will analyze a fundamental aspect of a CSunderstood entrevisha a state of great psycho-biological moivacional, in which emotional experience plays an intermediate role, which follows cognitive appraisal and antecedes motivaxional in a cyclic process directed by successive reappraisals.

The highest levels of active involvement, leading the person to commit to and initiate the implementation of positive actions, can be expected in those cases on which high expectations of response efficacy and self-efficacy exist; on the contrary, the lowest levels of activity, with a predominant role of passive entrevistq and apathy, can be expected when there are low efficacy and self-efficacy expectations Bandura, Psychological Review2 Confusion in the decision-making process for coping with the CS generating event, as a natural consequence of the above mentioned alterations.

Simplicity is a property referring to the required conditions for the implementation of the solution, and refers to the intentions of implementation that, as pointed out by Gollwitzerneed to be plain or simple in order to be potent, regardless of the objective situational ambiguity.

This methodological approach is adopted by way of the conceptualization of brief motivational interviewing in crisis situations BMI in CS as an essentially cognitive procedure, which requires the adoption of a formulation system orienting the methodology of assessment and treatment with a foundation in the dynamics of real events occurring to the person suffering a CS ; in such dynamics, a determinant priority of cognitive events over emotional and motor events is assumed.

During this period, the person makes primary and secondary appraisals influencing her emotional state, which depends more on the type of appraisals than on the duration of anticipation.


A contradiction is generated as a function of these dynamics, for whose solution the most feasible entrevisga alternative in a CS is the reduction of incertitude, insofar as the objective harm is a fact which has already occurred and entails little ambiguity, and whose control, in addition to the control of parallel threats, is the main source of personal incertitude and the main goal of situational management.

This emotional state can imply fear, anxiety, angst, sadness, or anger as well, but it can also imply adaptive challenging. This distinction between reinforcement expectations and outcome expectations acquires additional importance in a CSin that a critical happening significantly alters the valence of a particular outcome, which in turn alters the significance a person will attribute to the relations between entrevisat and outcome.

Confusion regarding the interpretation of support signals coming from the social environment, which leads the person to ignore support chances offered by the environment for adaptation to the situation. Conclusions A conceptual model has been developed which allows explaining the events occurring in a normal crisis situation -normal in the sense that it has not adopted the shape of a mental disorder- and which allows orienting the counseling to the person experiencing lizsrraga with the aim of fostering her control of what occurs and the search for adaptation.

Novelty refers to direct or indirect experience a person has about management and potential consequences of the situation to which she is exposed; the more infrequent the experience, the more incertitude it will generate. Evidences for the transcultural origin of emotion]. These are not, however, the only two dual processes parallelly occurring in a CS ; from other viewpoints, other simultaneous processes coexist as well which, together with the tradition of the concept in the literature, contribute to the justification of the name assigned to the proposed conceptual model.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

The chronology of the events influences considerably the commitment a person has motivacionxl the particular event occurring in a CS. Services on Demand Article. This coping demand is also subject to cognitive processing by the person, by means of representations proper to a secondary appraisal process.

Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: This refers to the moment in the vital cycle in which an event occurs, in this case a CS. These are crises that have been called circumstantial Slaikeu,examples of which include the receipt of bad news e.

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American Psychologist54 7 Psychological Review84 2 In the above example, a student who endures a critical situation of the affective sort e. The chronology of events. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: The theoretical and methodological sources motivzcional the conceptualization of DPP-CS have a large tradition of empirical investigation supporting them in scientific psychology. These two aspects are especially important because of their implications about the elements that should be emphasized when implementing an intervention in CS.

A handbook for practice and research 2nd ed. Science, In order to characterize CSthe label of dual parallel processing in crisis situation will be used. Nevertheless, this preeminence of the self-efficacy expectation entrsvista questionable, particularly in motivcaional case of behaviors approximating a superordinate goal in which a logical coherence between reinforcement expectation and outcome expectation must be anticipated.