The Einthoven triangle is central to the field of electrocardiography, but the concept of cardiac vectors is often a difficult notion for students to grasp. To illustrate. Einthoven’s Triangle. It was given by Willem Einthoven. It is a formation of 3 limb leads namely aVR, aVL and aVF which are used in electrocardiagraphy which. Besides coining the actual term “electrocardiogram” and in turn “ECG,” Willem Einthoven also established the general principal of ECG as we.

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Traditional ECG laboratories have had students take the lead measurements and then determine the dipole position of the heart; our developed laboratory allows students to manually change the position of the dipole and thus predict the measurements that will result in the three leads depending on the trianggle, which is a new method of educating about the ECG. The Precordial Leadsor Chest Leads are labelled V1- V6 and are placed on the sternum travelling in a posterior direction:.

A simple device to illustrate the Einthoven triangle

The laboratory class starts with students taking their own ECG. Through a guided process, every group has the chance to independently rediscover the aforementioned principles.

As there were no adhesive electrodes or intensifying systems available at this time, the only way to contact the body was to place the extremities eeinthoven a bucket of salt solution. It is totally painless and can be triangpe quickly. The further development of lead systems has resulted in the classic 12 leads of today.

Disorders such as atrial fibrillation or extra ventricular beats may not be recorded. Frank asked himself how this rotating dipole could most effectively be measured and described.

This thin cable was produced by shooting an arrow with its tail attached to a thread of molten glass.


Einthoven’s Triangle

They conclude that the minimal deflection in any lead is obtained when the dipole is perpendicular to that lead. Now that the devices are set up and the students know how to operate them, they can begin observing particular orientations of the electrical vector. The three Augmented Limb Leads: This shows the effectiveness that the device has in conveying ordinarily difficult ideas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Students should learn that for Einthoven’s law to hold true, the loop created by the dipole leads cannot be open; the loop can be of any shape, but it must einthovsn closed. Can J Cardiol 3: He was furthermore able to calculate the classic 12 leads from the vector loop. To use this device, students place the acrylic board with the Einthoven triangle diagram into the box, on top of the supporting blocks.

Students will realize from the vector positions that a new formula arises: You are commenting using your WordPress. Image of the Einthoven Triangle printed onto the acrylic board, displaying the 3 leads and 16 electrode locations.

Einthoven’s triangle | definition of Einthoven’s triangle by Medical dictionary

Cancel reply Enter your comment here Finally, drill a hole in the center of the D battery holder and use a screw to fasten it into the lower middle of the headboard. Thus, these concepts are not memorized out of a textbook but are rather synthesized through rediscovery. A hour reading is a frequently used tool for the diagnosis of heart problems and is reimbursed as a long-term reading. Students can then check if the formula still holds true in open loops.

Students can then disprove the common misinterpretation that the Einthoven triangle must be equilateral. Einthoven used these measuring points, by immersing the hands and foot in pails of salt water, as the contacts for his string galvanometerthe first practical ECG machine. In the center of the headboard is the battery, which represents the electrical dipole of the heart. Electrodes may be placed distally or proximally on the limb without affecting the recording.


CardioSecur uses lead technology that offers a degree view of the heart and complies with cardiological guidelines. Its most delicate component, the string galvanometer, was the most sensitive electrical measurement device of the time 2 ; the movements of the thin filament were recorded in a photographic plate that used a recently developed emulsion; the light source used was the brightest option available, the carbon arc used in lighthouses at that time ; the projecting microscope made by Zeiss had to be specially designed in Jena, Germany; and the lenses, due to the large magnification used, needed to have minimal chromatic aberration and required a new type of glass, invented in Laboratory Procedures Now that the devices are set up and the students know how to operate them, they can begin observing particular orientations of the electrical vector.

The headboard contains three analog voltmeters placed horizontally, as they connect to and display the voltage of each lead.

We built a total of 6 devices for classes of 30 students and tested them in the first-year Human Physiology course at the University of California-Davis School of Medicine. By placing the battery connectors as they normally would einthoveb any point on the circle, the students verify that the formula still holds true and that a nonequilateral triangle can be an Einthoven triangle.