[Vittore Cossalter Motorcycle Dynamics BookZZ. Uploaded by. Umar Riaz. Motorcy cle Dy namics Second Edition Vittore Cossalter Importante notice This book. Motorcycle Model. The motorcycle model considered in this. study is a merely four-degree-of freedom ( DOF) system discussed in (Cossalter, ). Motorcycle Dynamics has 19 ratings and 0 reviews. The book presents the theory of motorcycle dynamics. It is a technical book for the engineer.

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The power, corresponding to the number of revolutions measured, is determined by the dynamometer curve. Tire properties, in particular, are very important because the dynamucs steering angle depends on the difference between the side slip angles.

To lessen the undesired lift effects, modern fairings are designed to reduce lift to a minimum.

In conclusion, it can be stated that when comparing different motorcycles it is important to refer to the normal trail since it has a precise physical meaning. The maximum hypothetical forward velocity of the motorcycle depends on the load transfer from the front to the rear wheel.

The values of the relaxation length of the cornering force ranges between 0. The forward displacement is called the rolling friction parameter.

The parameters defining equivalent suspension are: It can be observed that the steering head angle, the front tire cross section radius, the height of the center of gravity and the normal trail are the parameters that most influence the value of torque. The meaning of the symbols as the follows: It can be observed that the behavior of the vehicle is: In general, the position of the rider moves motorcyycle overall center of gravity towards the cynamics Fig.

The control of the motorcycle over the critical velocity is possible by performing counter-steering maneuvers. Suppose we wanted to brake the motorcycle with notorcycle deceleration equal to 0. The combination of distance between bumps on the road plane and forward velocity causes excitations of the vehicle in a range of frequency that can be evaluated from 0.

This sensitivity is practically independent of the value of the normal trail.

The rear brake is of little use on optimal roads and with high grip tires high coefficient of frictionbut becomes indispensable on slippery surfaces reduced coefficient of friction.


I worked all winter, every evening, to perfectly restore it. Books by Vittore Cossalter. With a zero steering angle the trail is: The right plot refers to a motorcucle with camber stiffness coefficient in the front tire greater than that of the rear tire. The second term is less important than the first, and, in a first approximation, it can be ignored.

[Vittore Cossalter Motorcycle Dynamics BookZZ | Umar Riaz –

Coossalter the motorcycle is perfectly vertical the roll and steering angles being zerothe contact point is located at A, as is shown in Fig. Brian Britton rated it it was amazing Feb 11, This potential advantage, however, does motorcyc,e justify the highly complex construction.

Now consider a motorcycle that is under-steering while it is rounding a turn. Yawing moment includes two contributions. This means that there are essentially two possible situations: In this case, the rear plane does not yaw, but rather moves laterally due to the lateral rolling of the tires. If no wind tunnel is available, the drag area CDA can be determined in the following ways.

The maximum use of the two tires is attained with this distribution. In transitory movement, in a turn with variable velocity and curvature radius, the torque the rider must exercise will be substantially different from that calculated in a steady state, especially if the variations in velocity and trajectory occur suddenly. In fact, it is well known that small caster angles are needed for motorcycles to be very sensitive to rapid steering and that high caster angles values make steering more controllable.

Since the lowering corresponds to a reduction in potential energy, the increase in the steering angle takes place naturally, even without applying torque to the handlebars. If the generation of lateral front force requires a slip angle larger than that needed for the generation of lateral rear force, the motorcycle will tend, as the roll angle increases, to skid more with the front wheel.

If the rider leans his torso towards the interior of the turn and at the same time rotates his leg so as to nearly touch the ground with his knee, he manages to reduce the roll angle of the motorcycle plane Fig.

Motorcycle Dynamics by Vittore Cossalter

The maximum value of the force that can be obtained, given a certain tire, is strongly dependent on road conditions. This purpose concerns rider comfort, that is the isolation of the sprung mass from the vibration generated by the interaction of the wheels with road irregularities; ensure wheel grip on the road plane in order to transmit the required driving, braking and lateral forces; ensure the desired trim of the vehicle under various operating conditions acceleration, braking, entering and exiting turns.


The radius of curvature remains approximately constant and equal to that relating to kinematic steering. It is clear that the choice of the height of the center of gravity and its longitudinal position is motprcycle compromise that must take into account the intended use and power of the motorcycle.

In the most external area of the patch the peripheral velocity is greater than the forward velocity, while in the interior area of the patch the contrary is true. Motorcycles can be described using the following cossatler parameters: It can be seen that the zero steering torque curve shifts towards lower values of the forward speed, and the resulting behavior is quite different from the reference case.

Motorcycle Dynamics

If we consider a motorcycle in a braking phase Fig. If we consider the hypothesis of the pure rolling of tires on the road to be valid, it is easy to ascertain that each wheel, with respect to the fixed road, can only rotate around: As soon as I got home, I managed to buy an old Guzzi Falcone The equation of equilibrium of the moments with respect to the center of gravity provides the expression for the braking force at the point of turn over: Benelli cc of 3 Rectilinear Motion of Motorcy cles The behavior of motorcycles during rectilinear motion depends on the longitudinal forces exchanged between the tires and the road, the aerodynamic forces induced through this motion, and the slope of the road plane.

While he drives, the rider manages all three major movements, according to his personal style and skill: The lateral reaction forces depend on the sideslip angles of the tires, roll angle and vertical loads. Of these three causes, the first one is by far the most important.